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 Modeling company/organization, Enterprise Architecture by Zachman Framework, MDA

EA by TOGAF and ArchiMate
EA - Zachman Framework







                                                                                                                               ... 90 % of solution is understanding the problem.  



Enterprise Architecture - Zachman Framework and the OMG's Model Driven Architecture



The Zachman Framework 3.0. is one popular way of conceptualizing how all of the more specific architectures that an organization might create can be integrated into a comprehensive picture. The Zachman Framework is an analytic model or classification scheme that organizes descriptive representations. It does not describe an
implementation process and is independent of specific methodologies.

The Object Management Group’s Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is an approach to creating models, refining models, and generating code from models. The MDA
approach also includes technology to facilitate the transport of models and code from one implementation to another, and may, in the future, include the ability to
reverse engineering code into models. It is important to note that MDA does not define a specific development methodology. Instead, it is a generic approach that
can be used with existing methodologies.



Zachman states that “The Framework for Enterprise Architecture is a two dimensional classification scheme for descriptive representations of an Enterprise.”

The vertical dimension (the rows) describes the perspectives of those who use the models or descriptions contained in the cells. The top row represents the most generic perspective of an organization, while lower rows are successively more concrete. The bottom row represents a description of the actual data, code and people that make up the enterprise.

The perspectives, starting from the top, are:


SCOPE: (Contextual) The Planner’s Perspective. This describes the models, architectures and representations that provide the boundaries for the organization, and describe what senior executives must consider when they think about the organization and how it interacts with the world.

BUSINESS MODEL: (Conceptual) The Owner’s Perspective. This describes the models, architectures and descriptions used by the individuals who are the owners of the business process. They focus on the usage characteristics of the products.

SYSTEM MODEL: (Logical) The Designer’s Perspective. This describes the models, architectures and descriptions used by engineers, architects and those who mediate between what is desirable and what is technically possible.

TECHNOLOGY MODEL: (Physical) The Builder’s Perspective. This describes the models, architectures and descriptions used by technicians, engineers and contractors who design and create the actual product. The emphasis here is on constraints and what will actually be constructed.

DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS: (Out-of-Context Perspective) A Sub-Contractor’s Perspective. This describes the actual elements or parts that are included in, or make up, the final product (e.g. software components). Using the construction metaphor, Zachman refers to it as a sub-contractor’s perspective, and this makes sense to software developers when the design is implemented with modules or components acquired from others.

THE FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE. The bottom row represents the actual deployed or running elements, data, and people of the organization. It isn’t a perspective, as
such, but the “real world,” in all its complexity, that underlies all of the more or less abstract perspectives above it. (To simplify subsequent figures, we will drop the
Function Enterprise row from other Zachman diagrams.)



The horizontal dimension of the framework (the columns) describes the types of abstractions that define each perspective. These abstractions are based on the widely used questions that people have historically asked when they sought understanding.


The six questions or types of abstractions are as follows:

DATA: What is it made of? This focuses on the material composition of the product. In the case of software systems, it focuses on data. Zachman has proposed a simple, illustrative model for each of the columns. In this case, the model is: Thing—Relationship—Thing

FUNCTION: How does it work? This focuses on the functions or transformations of the product. The model is: Process—Input/Output—Process

NETWORK: Where are the elements located relative to one another? This focuses on the geometry or connectivity of the product. The model is: Node—Line—Node

PEOPLE: Who does what work? This focuses on the people and the manuals and the operating instructions or models they use to perform their tasks. The model is: People—Work—People.


TIME: When do things happen? This focuses on the life cycles, timing and schedules used to control activities. The model is: Event—Cycle—Event

MOTIVATION: Why do things happen? This focuses on goals, plans and rules that prescribe policies and ends that guide the organization. The model is: End—Means—End

Each cell describes an architecture, model, representation or description that an organization might document. Each of the cells in the framework is primitive and thus, each can be described or modeled independently. (Zachman refers to it as “normalized” with one fact in one place.) All of the cells on a given row make up a given perspective. All of the cells in a column are related to each other since they focus on the same type of elements.


Organizations may not keep all of the models described by the Enterprise Architecture Framework in one location. Some organizations do not formally define some of the cells, but, since all of the cells are logically necessary for a complete description of an organization, if they aren’t formally described, they are implicit in assumptions made by people in the organization.



MDA (Model Driven Architecture)

The goal of MDA is to create an enterprise architecture modeling capability that analysts and developers can use to describe a company’s business and software assets. By creating the architecture with software tools, companies are in a position to generate specific applications to implement the architecture and to modify those applications as the organization’s needs change. In other words, MDA represents a major step in the direction of a real-time enterprise in which managers can make changes in architectures that are subsequently represented in code.


Next Figure suggests how an IT group can derive models from either business process descriptions or software descriptions and use them, in turn, to convert the abstract models into executable implementations. Note that the models used in this process would refer to a specific organization’s data and processes. These models would be derived from metamodels like UML, but would refer to specific processes within the organization. Thus, in effect, a specific model of a company’s business classes





"The Enterprise Architecture will never be finished".

Given that the model of the architecture reflects the state information system that is constantly evolving, changing and improving, we should realize that Enterprise Architektúra never completed and is necessary to ensure that the model is continually updated.



Enterprise Architecture modeling techniques

• OMG Business Motivation Model

• Business Process Model (BPMN or Catalyst)

• Requirements Management

• UseCase model

• Object Sequence Diagram (UML)

• Class Diagram (UML)

• State Transition Diagram (UML)

• Object Collaboration Diagram (UML)

• Activity Diagram (UML)

• Entity Relationship and ERA diagram


Business Motivation Model (BMM)     Business Process Model (BPMN)          Use Case Model (UML)



Sequence Diagram (UML)                   Class Diagram (UML)                           Physical Data Model






Enterprise Architecture Management, IT Architecture, standards and tools


The area of ​​analysis and modeling of functional architecture, Enterprise Architecture are applied these design standards:

Methods of processing the functional architecture of the information system (EDEN CONSULTING/LBMS/Select Business Solutions) based on the methodology Select Perspective and software tool Select Process Director - for use and maintenance methodologies.

The methodology is based on ontological standard / perspectives in the field of modeling Enterprise Architecture - Zachman Framework

UML (Unified Modeling Language) of Consortium OMG (Object Management Group).

BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) of consortium OMG (Object Management Group) - a standard for modeling business processes.


CASE toolsSelect Architect, Visual Paradigm, Sparx Enterprise Architect, ...




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